The bacterial flagellum, the whiplike outboard motor that has become an icon of intelligent design, has another artificial-looking part: a clutch. Science reported this in “machine language” as follows:1The bacterial flagellum, powered by a motor that generates 1400 pN-nm of torque, can rotate at a frequency of greater than 100 Hz. EpsE [the clutch protein] disabled this powerful biological motor when associated with a flagellar basal body and, in a manner similar to that of a clutch, disengaged the drive train from the power sourcee (fig. S5B). Clutch control of flagellar function has distinct advantages over transcriptional control of flagellar gene expression for regulating motility. Some bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis, have many flagella per cell. The flagellum is an elaborate, durable, energetically expensive, molecular machine and simply turning off de novo flagellum synthesis does not necessarily arrest motility. Once flagellar gene expression is inactivated, multiple rounds of cell division may be required to segregate preexisting flagella to extinction in daughter cells. In contrast, the clutch requires the synthesis of only a single protein to inhibit motility. Furthermore, if biofilm formation is prematurely aborted, flagella once disabled by the clutch might be reactivated, allowing cells to bypass fresh investment in flagellar synthesis. Whereas flagellum expression and assembly are complex and slow, clutch control is simple, rapid, and potentially reversible.The clutch thus puts the flagellum in neutral and lets the motor idle without having to be shut down. Among the co-authors of the paper was Howard Berg of Harvard, who has spent many years studying the molecular motor. The paper did not attempt to explain how a clutch might evolve by natural selection. For popular reports on this finding, with illustrations of how the clutch works, visit NSF News, Nano.org, Photonics.com, PhysOrg and Science Daily. ARN discussed the paper from an intelligent design perspective.1. Blair, Turner, Winkelman, Berg and Kearns, “A Molecular Clutch Disables Flagella in the Bacillus subtilis Biofilm,” Science, 20 June 2008: Vol. 320. no. 5883, pp. 1636 – 1638, DOI: 10.1126/science.1157877.This is another of many instances of one of the best-established laws in nature: evolutionary storytelling is inversely proportional to observational detail. A good scientific law needs a popular name. Write in with your suggestion.(Visited 43 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The annual community talent showallows the workers and their families tolet their hair down. Children look forward to the yearlybeach outing, a treat they mightotherwise never experience.(Images: Izel Botha)MEDIA CONTACTS • Izel BothaShine project manager+27 28 840 1203 / 2315 or +27 84 666 3210Emily van RijswijckFarm workers in the picturesque farming community of Villiersdorp in the Western Cape’s Overberg area are running a unique community outreach programme for their colleagues, teaching them important life skills ranging from budgeting to conflict resolution.The Shine programme was started by the Villiersdorp farming community in 2009 in an attempt to improve the quality of life of farm workers and their families and children.To date, 35 farms have joined the programme and more than 1 000 workers are reaping the benefits.By offering personal growth and life skills training, Shine aims to help the workers reach their full potential, says project manager Izel Botha.The programme has two components: the training focuses on providing workers with skills, and the social element aims to broaden the horizons of workers and their families.“The impact of this training reaches more than just the workers who are enrolled in the programme. Their families, children, communities and workplaces also benefit from their new perspectives and skills,” says Botha.Because Villiersdorp is a fruit and wine producing area work tends to be seasonal, so the training takes place for 10 to 12 weeks during off-peak periods. The enrichment programme is ongoing, offering monthly excursions and entertainment.Training starts with a foundation phase focusing on emotional health. Other life skills courses have evolved in response to feedback received from the workers. In 2010 an alcohol and drug abuse prevention course was added and in 2011 money management and budgeting training became part of the programme.In 2012 the community has requested a shift of focus to communication and conflict management in all relationships.This is not a quick-fix intervention, says Botha. “The whole emphasis of the programme is to be preventative and long term.”Workers actively involvedThe success of the programme can be attributed to the workers’ active involvement in the planning and decision-making processes, Botha believes.Courses and events are determined by the workers themselves and they are also responsible for fundraising. On each farm they elect a Shine official who functions as a link between project coordinators and participants in the programme.“These officials are the real heart of the project. They organise the events and decide what should happen and how,” says Botha.Looking to the future, Shine hopes to introduce subjects such as prevention of foetal alcohol syndrome, parenting skills and the practice of safe sex.While Shine reaches about 1 500 farm children and young adults through various outreach programmes each year, the organisers intend to focus strongly on the community’s young people throughout 2012, as this was a concern raised by parents, says Botha.“If we can secure the necessary funding we would like to address aspects such as how to be an emotionally healthy teenager, as well as alcohol and drug abuse prevention.”Entertainment and leisureThe enhancement of the workers’ social life and environment is an important part of the outreach programme.“The idea is to create uplifting, frequent and constructive relaxation activities to encourage positive ways of spending free time,” says Botha. “A strong focus is put on showing rural youth that it is possible to have fun without using and abusing substances.”Entertainment has included visits from soapie 7de Laan’s Christi Panagio, the Cape Minstrels, and local music icon Tant Grietjie, the popular 84-year-old singer from Garies in Namaqualand. The workers have to raise funds for these events, which also encompass annual youth festivals, angling competitions, sports days, talent shows and gardening competitions.Highlights on the calendar are an annual beach outing for about 1 200 adults and children and, in December, Christmas tree festivities, during which almost 700 farm children receive presents.Pearl of the OverbergVilliersdorp is a mere 90 minutes drive from Cape Town over the majestic Hottentots-Holland pass, from which the district derives its Afrikaans name, Overberg (meaning “over the mountain”).A little gem in an area which has much to offer the visitor, Villiersdorp is commonly known as the Pearl of the Overberg.Nestling in a valley surrounded by the peaks of the Waterval and Baviaans mountains, the quaint village has a mild Mediterranean climate and is a nature lovers’ and health fanatics’ paradise. While it is best known as an apple-growing area, farmers in the district also produce pears, apricots, peaches, grapes and onions.Villiersdorp forms part of the Worcester Wine Route and offers a less commercialised wine-tasting experience than the older, more popular Stellenbosch routes.The valley is also home to the Theewaterskloof Dam, South Africa’s seventh-largest dam and the major source of water for Cape Town.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest JD Equipment, Inc. has acquired the Georgetown, Ohio, and Flemingsburg, Kentucky, John Deere dealerships effective June 7, 2018. The locations were formerly owned by Cahall Brothers, Inc.Jeff Mitchell, CEO of JD Equipment commented “We look forward to serving the communities where both stores are located. Cahall Bros. has a long history of providing quality products and services to their customers and JD Equipment will continue that tradition. JD will emphasize excellent customer service and a wide selection of equipment and parts to meet the needs of all customers. Further, we wish Kyle Cahall and Roland Cahall well in their retirement and appreciate their efforts in growing a strong business with skilled employees. We are pleased to announce all employees at each location have joined JD Equipment, which will ensure a smooth transition for our customers.”The Georgetown store will be managed by Dan Hodges and the Flemingsburg store will be managed by Todd Hickerson.JD Equipment has 36 years of experience as a John Deere dealership with eight other locations in central Ohio and offers the largest inventory of equipment and parts in the state. Additionally, repair and maintenance service are offered by factory trained technicians, both in the field and at each location.JD Equipment will assume operations June 7, 2018 with no interruptions in service.
Wyoming Recycler Finds New Uses For Weathered 1x6sLARAMIE, Wyo. — For the past nine years, a Laramie recycling company, Centennial Woods, has been satisfying a growing market for recycled lumber by dismantling old snow fencing. The company has secured maintenance contracts from the state of Wyoming to replace weathered boards on miles of snow fence with new lumber. Formerly burned or discarded as waste, the old 1x6s are now sold for $1.69 a linear foot to green builders, mostly for use as board-and-batten siding.Wyoming maintains 200 miles of snow fencing. The 16-foot-tall structures are installed in windy areas to prevent snow from drifting onto highways. Most snow fence boards are Ponderosa pine, although spruce, fir, and lodgepole pine are also used. Wyoming’s dry, windy climate contributes to the boards’ longevity; the state replaces the boards every 7 to 25 years.According to Grant Porder, Centennials’ vice president for customer care, the reclaimed boards have an average moisture content of 7% when they are pulled from the fence. The 16-foot boards are trimmed to remove rot before they are resold.Business Is Growing“People are just looking for a good, true, solid wood product that they can use without guilt,” said John Pope, the president of Centennial Woods, explained to an Associated Press reporter. “What we really did is we recognized by building a national and international market for the wood, by highlighting its green aspects and its beauty, that we could grow this into a substantial business.”Centennial has customers all over the country. “Five years ago, we probably could have credibly sold wood into maybe 10 or 15 markets in the United States,” said Pope. “Now we also sell wood to places like Kansas City, Dallas, Boston, Manhattan, Los Angeles, Portland.”While Centennial recycled about 4 to 6 miles of snow fence in 1999, the company now dismantles between 20 and 25 miles every year. “The difference is green building,” said Pope.
Discovery is about learning what your client needs, their strategic initiatives, their goals, and their outcomes. Discovery work is what allows you to neatly tie anything you propose to what your client needs and to tailor it to those specific needs.But you aren’t the only one who should be discovering. You create value for your clients by helping them discover things too.When your client doesn’t yet recognize the changes they need to make, you help them discover the gaps in their performance that they don’t yet see. You help them discover that they can do better.Ask yourself this question: How can I help my dream client see the performance gap that, if recognized, would compel them to engage in the process of change?You also help your client discover what they really need. In a lot of cases, we believe our dream clients already know what they need, but in more cases, you can create value for them through the sales process by helping them discover new possibilities, new ways to get bigger and better outcomes, and new opportunities. You can help them do things in a new way.Ask yourself this question: What is my dream client doing now that they could differently that would produce a better result?As your dream client goes through their process, the weigh their choices. This is the process of discovering the differences in solutions–and partners. You can help here by identifying choices and trade-offs. You help them discover what the risks and rewards of certain choices might look like, and you also help them discover what makes you different and why.Ask yourself this question: How do I help my dream client discover the best options available to them and how we differentiate ourselves around those options.Your clients want to make good decisions. They want to avoid risk, and they want to ensure they capture the benefit of their investment. You help them discover how they can mitigate that risk and how you can help. You help them discover and understand the commitments they must make to execute your solution and capture the value.Ask yourself this question: What do I need to help my client understand about their risks, how to avoid them, and how to succeed with my solution.Discovery isn’t only a stage of your sales process. It’s also the buyer’s process and it’s where you can create massive value as a salesperson.
Jones thrilled for Man Utd duo Garner, Williamsby Freddie Taylor13 hours agoSend to a friendShare the lovePhil Jones was thrilled with the performance of Manchester United youngsters James Garner and Brandon Williams in Thursday’s 1-0 win over Partizan Belgrade.The teenagers were part of seven changes made by Ole Gunnar Solskjaer from the line-up that faced Liverpool on Sunday. And Jones thinks the pair more than held their own in Serbia.He said: They’re going to put you under pressure and we dug deep I thought Jimmy Garner and Brandon were outstanding they should be very proud of themselves tonight.”A huge experience at a young age both looked comfortable at this level and have a very bright future the pair of them.” About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
Kolkata: Kolkata Police swung into action on Monday to save a man life after he posted a video on Facebook to declare that he would be committing suicide.According to police, around 10 pm on Monday, the Cyber Crime Cell of Kolkata Police received an e-mail informing about a man who had uploaded a video on Facebook declaring he would commit suicide. Police personnel immediately checked the profile of the man and also viewed the video. The man had shot the video while standing on a flyover, which the officers couldn’t identify. Raja Saha, sub-inspector of Cyber Crime Cell tracked the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the Facebook user and within a few minutes, he managed to trace two mobile numbers. Police couldn’t contact the user of the first number as the phone was switched off. However, on dialing the second number a woman received the call. She said the man, who had uploaded the video, worked as her driver. Cops managed to get his address from her. Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaThe information was passed on to the officers of Kasba police station as the man lived in Picnic Garden area and his picture was also provided to the officers. Roni Adhikary , sub-inspector of Kasba police station, rushed to the address but they couldn’t find the man. However, Adhikary was able to persuade his mother to keep him busy over the phone till the police reached him. Meanwhile, Prabal Biswas, another sub-inspector of Kasba police station, managed to trace the man’s location which was around Bondel Gate flyover. He ran to flyover area where the man was busy talking to his mother on his phone. Around 10:30 pm, Biswas spotted the man near the railway track in Bondel Gate area. He was immediately surrounded by police officers so that he was not able to jump on the track or escape from the spot. Also Read – Bengal civic volunteer dies in road mishap on national highwayThe man was taken to the Kasba police station after Biswas spoke to him about one hour to know what instigated him to take the extreme step. Later, he was sent home. After interacting with his family members, police came to know that the man is suffering from depression due to family matters. Police officials urged his family members to go for periodical counselling to improve his mental health. A General Diary Entry has been made in this regard at the Kasba police station.
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 19 2018In an editorial published today in the BMJ, researchers from King’s College London and the University of the Arts London (UAL) argue that it is a worsening problem, with levels regularly exceeding international recommendations.”Even in intensive care units, which cater for the most vulnerable patients, noise levels over 100dB have been measured, the equivalent of loud music through headphones,” said lead author Dr Andreas Xyrichis.Noise in hospitals is known to hinder communication among staff, causing annoyance, irritation and fatigue, and detrimentally impact the quality and safety of healthcare. High noise levels and noise-induced stress impact negatively on staff performance and wellbeing, compromising caring behavior and contributing to burnout.The team highlight that it can also impact a patients’ ability to rest, heal and recover, since it has been linked to the development of ICU psychosis, hospitalization-induced stress, increased pain sensitivity, high blood pressure and poor mental health.”We know hospital noise has disruptive consequences for sleep – machine sounds in particular have a greater negative effect on arousal than human voices. Post-hospitalization recovery is also compromised. For example, coronary care patients treated during noisy periods were found to have a higher incidence of rehospitalization compared to those treated during quieter periods,” explained Andreas.Patients report that hospital noise can have a cumulative effect on their hospital experience. Patients who are in hospital for several nights are left feeling trapped and stressed, leading to requests for premature discharge from hospital and heightened risk of trauma and readmission.The team from King’s and UAL believes that the following areas urgently need to be addressed to ensure significant progress in this slow-moving field: Source:https://www.kcl.ac.uk/ Noise is often incorrectly associated with high sound pressure levels (SPLs). Dripping taps for example, may register low SPLs yet still be considered noisy. Prioritizing SPL reduction does not ensure improved noise perception. Therefore, a new approach is needed, one that views the hospital soundscape as a positive and malleable component of the environment. There are a number of potential sources of noise in hospitals. Alarms, televisions, rattling trolleys, and ringing phones, as well as staff, visitor, and patient conversations. However, not all of them are perceived as noise by patients – for example, some find the sound of the tea trolley pleasing, associating it with receiving a warm drink. Research has also shown that some ICU patients welcome ringing telephones as a sign that they are not alone. So far ways to measure patients’ perceptions of noise are limited, and more research investment is needed in this area. Patients and families need clear information about likely noise levels during admissions, so they are better prepared in advance, and can consider simple solutions such as headphones with their own choice of audio content. Education for staff is also needed, to encourage a culture that considers noise reduction an integral part of safe high quality healthcare. Related StoriesResearch finds link between air pollution and coronary heart disease in ChinaLiving environment, air pollution may be linked to increased risk of hypertensionInternational tourists are more susceptible to harmful effects of air pollution”Measures to tackle this problem have included ear plugs, noise warning systems, acoustic treatment panels, educational initiatives and noise reduction protocols, which have provided some benefit,” said Andreas.”However, so far, patients have been seen as passive recipients of hospital noise rather than active participants in its creation. It is essential that future solutions should have greater patient participation as a key feature.”Guides about potential ward sounds could also enhance patients’ understanding of their surroundings and increase relaxation. Sound masking – the addition of background, broadband sound optimized for particular environments to reduce noise-induced disturbance – has also been used widely in open-plan offices for many years and has recently shown promise for improving sleep in hospitals.”
Source:http://www.musc.edu/ Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 15 2019The “Stroke Belt” refers to the swath of states in the Southeast where rates of stroke death are high, and according to the Department of Health and Environmental Control, South Carolina comes in at number six for the nation’s highest rates of stroke death.A stroke occurs when blood flow to a particular area of the brain is cut off, which could be due to a clot, a blood vessel leak or the bursting of a brain aneurysm. Without enough oxygen, the cells in that part of the brain begin to die and can leave behind motor and cognitive deficits.But while a stroke can be caused by vessel blockages or bleeding into the brain, the most common form is ischemic, meaning it is caused by a clot rather than a bleed, and is responsible for 87% of all strokes, according to the National Stroke Association.Timely removal of the blockage is vital when treating a stroke, and while the acceptable time to treatment has slowly lengthened with more effective thrombectomy techniques, physicians and surgeons must still act within 24 hours of the onset of stroke. Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) report in a recent paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology that the current standard of care for stroke should also factor in procedure time when considering surgical intervention.”People will try once to remove the clot,” said Ali Alawieh, M.D, Ph.D., neurosurgery researcher at MUSC who worked on the study under the direction of MUSC’s Division of Neuroendovascular Surgery Director Alejandro Spiotta, M.D. “They’ll then try two, three and even four times or more hoping for a successful attempt. The idea of the paper is to quantify that, to look for a limit where you start doing more harm than good.”By studying the number of attempts and the amount of time spent performing procedures, this team of researchers concluded that the likelihood of completing an endovascular thrombectomy without significantly increasing the risk for the patient decreases dramatically after the first 30-60 minutes, depending on the technique used.Endovascular thrombectomies are performed using either stent retrievers or aspiration thrombectomy (ADAPT). By comparing both techniques, Alawieh and Spiotta found that the most important detail to consider was the time spent manipulating the vessel. Conducting the procedure with an SR means it takes the surgeon longer to get to the vessel than with ADAPT, but the factor that influences patient outcomes is the amount of time needed once the surgical team reaches the clot. Using SRs, the golden time for the procedure is at the hour mark, and using ADAPT, it is a half-hour.Related StoriesResearchers report how a popular antidepressant drug could rewire the brainSugary drinks linked to cancer finds studyNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancer”We had noticed this trend at MUSC, but we wanted to know if it extended nationally,” said Alawieh. “As it turns out, it does. After that 30- to 60-minute mark, depending on the procedure, surgeons should pause and reassess if the procedure is worth continuing.”Prior studies have shown that extending the duration of mechanical thrombectomies past 60 minutes, and more recently past 35 minutes, decreases the chance a patient will show few-to-no neurological disabilities after 90 days and increases the chance of a postprocedural hemorrhage. This study supports those findings at a multicenter national level and shows complication rates increase by the minute and were not dependent on the treatment center.Because they are in the Stroke Belt, physicians at MUSC perform some of the largest numbers of endovascular thrombectomies in the country, totaling over 200 procedures a year. Endovascular thrombectomy remains an important area of study with guidelines changing every year, and surgical teams at MUSC have already begun contributing to and incorporating the new guidelines into their surgeries.If a procedure is taking longer than the intended 30 to 60 minutes and a surgeon decides not to continue with the endovascular thrombectomy, the patient will be treated using medical intervention. While rates of positive outcomes are highest with successful surgical intervention, patients may still recover some of the deficits with medical management.This work involved a collaboration between MUSC and other centers across the country who are part of the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR), a collaborative effort coordinated and initiated by MUSC to monitor outcomes in stroke patients nationally. To date, there are more than 12 centers across the U.S.”Stroke intervention procedures have improved dramatically in recent years, and they are so effective in helping patients, that it’s difficult for the physician to give up on a procedure when it’s not successful,” said Spiotta. “The major impact of this work is that it provides a potential stopping point for surgeons where the procedure can cause more harm than good.”
This article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente. Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 25 2019 San Francisco’s Board of Supervisors is slated to vote Tuesday to ban the sale and distribution of e-cigarettes in the city. The city is the corporate home of Juul Labs, the biggest producer of e-cigarettes in the country.The ordinances would make the sale of e-cigarettes illegal in brick-and-mortar stores and online when shipping to San Francisco addresses.San Francisco Mayor London Breed has 10 days to sign the legislation, which she has said she will do. The law will be enforced seven months from that date, in early 2020.San Francisco Supervisor Shamann Walton, who co-authored the legislation, sees it as part of a long-term battle against the effects of smoking.”We spent a few decades fighting big tobacco in the form of cigarettes,” Walton said. “Now we have to do it again in the form of e-cigarettes.”Under federal law, the minimum age to buy tobacco products is 18. California and 15 other states, however, have raised that age to 21 or passed measures that will set it to 21 by 2021. Despite this, use of e-cigarettes, or vaping, has skyrocketed among teenagers nationally.Last year, 1 in 5 high school seniors reported vaping in the past month. That’s almost double the number from the year before. Even eighth graders are vaping in record numbers.These increases come after years of declines in teenagers smoking traditional cigarettes.Public health officials are concerned about the rising number of teenagers using e-cigarettes, as nicotine can harm a young person’s developing brain. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that young people who vape may be more likely to start smoking traditional cigarettes.Walton said he’s disgusted with the actions of Juul and similar companies, who he said are “putting profits before the health of young people, and people in general.”Despite the tobacco age limit, Walton noted that vaping devices are commonly confiscated from students in the city’s middle and high schools.The ordinance is accompanied by another that prevents the manufacture, distribution and sale of e-cigarettes on San Francisco property. The ordinance takes direct aim at Juul Labs, which leases space from the city on San Francisco’s Pier 70. The ordinance is not retroactive, so it would not remove Juul from the company’s current space, but it would prevent other e-cigarette makers from renting city property in the future. In a statement, Juul spokesman Ted Kwong wrote that, regardless, the company does not “manufacture, distribute or sell our product from this space.”Juul’s vaping device was introduced in 2015. It’s small, sleek and discreet, looking similar to a flash drive. The company now controls 70% of the vaping market.In a statement, Juul Labs said it shares the city’s goal of keeping e-cigarettes away from young people. The company said it has made it harder for underage buyers to purchase Juul off its website and has shut down Juul accounts on Facebook and Instagram.Related StoriesStudies show no evidence of fall in cigarette consumption due to WHO’s FCTCStudy finds increase in cigarette smoking among minority teens after college affirmative action bansCollege affirmative action bans may increase smoking rates among minority high school studentsBut, the company argues that “the prohibition of vapor products for all adults in San Francisco will not effectively address underage use and will leave cigarettes on shelves as the only choice for adult smokers, even though they kill 40,000 Californians every year.”Walton doesn’t buy that argument, however. He said that’s simply “trading one nicotine addiction for another.” What’s more, he’s concerned that for every adult that might benefit, dozens of young people could become addicted.San Francisco resident Jay Friedman said the complete e-cigarette ban goes too far. The software engineer smoked a pack of cigarettes a day for 20 years, and smoking e-cigarettes has reduced his regular cigarette habit to two to three a day. He said he feels better physically.Friedman supported a ban on flavored tobacco that city voters passed last year. “I feel like it was good to get rid of the fruit flavors for kids,” he said, “but this feels like maybe a step too far.”If e-cigarettes are banned, he said, he would try to quit nicotine altogether. But, “there would be a point in a moment of weakness where I’d just end up buying a pack of smokes again and then it’s just a slippery slope from there.”Small businesses in San Francisco are concerned the ban will hurt their bottom line.Miriam Zouzounis and her family own Ted’s Market, a convenience store near downtown San Francisco. She said e-cigarettes are an “anchor” product: They draw people into the store.”When people come and want to purchase something at the store and we don’t have that exact item that they want, they’re not going to buy the rest of the items that they might on that trip: a drink or a sandwich,” Zouzounis said.She said sales from e-cigarettes account for at least $200 to $300 a day in sales. As a board member of the Arab American Grocers Association, she said she believes laws like this mostly affect businesses owned by immigrants.Abbey Chaitin is a 15-year-old lifelong San Francisco resident. She isn’t drawn to using e-cigarettes, she said, because she has seen peers become addicted to them.”I’ll see them in class fidgeting,” Chaitin said. “They need it to focus, to function.”And Chaitin predicted that, regardless of a ban, young people will still get their hands on e-cigarettes: “People my age can find a way around that if they really need to,” she said.Meanwhile, Juul is collecting signatures for a November ballot initiative to override the ban.This story is part of a partnership that includes KQED, NPR and Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent program of the Kaiser Family Foundation.