Source:https://www.hud.ac.uk/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Dec 4 2018″Recent media reports highlighting NHS statistics which show a rapid increase in the number of boys and young men being admitted to hospital suffering from eating disorders are welcome, if only for helping to draw attention to this issue. Although girls and young women are still around seven times more likely to be treated for an eating disorder, prevalence rates are increasing much more rapidly in males.Some of this increase may be explained by boys and young men simply being more willing to seek help. Although the stigma surrounding mental illness is decreasing for both sexes, historically men have been much less willing to admit to having psychological problems. Stereotypes surrounding masculinity have contributed to a culture where young men often feel compelled to conceal their distress, and this is reflected in the fact that suicide is much more common, and actually the primary cause of mortality in this group. If young men are increasingly feeling more able to seek help, then this can only be welcomed.However, the wider concern is what is causing the increase in eating disorders in young people, and especially young men? For many sufferers, poor and distorted body image is clearly implicated, and researchers and clinicians have started to focus on the potential negative influences of social media in this regard. Although the evidence is far from conclusive, it seems likely that, at least for some vulnerable individuals, social media may contribute to their body image concerns and associated eating disorders. A culture of social media use which encourages young people to constantly post updates and images of themselves, which are often then judged by their peers, puts them under extreme pressure to focus on their appearance, and equates this with social acceptance and worth. At the same time, young people are bombarded with images which depict often unrealistic or unattainable standards of attractiveness.This social comparison aspect of social media is reflected in sex differences in the body image concerns of young men versus young women. In contrast to a typical female drive for thinness, young men are often driven towards achieving greater and more defined muscularity (a phenomenon which has been labeled “bigorexia”). Although it might seem that spending a bit more time in the gym might not be too much of a problem, for some, this can become a pathological obsession, and, especially where it is associated with related issues such as steroid abuse and extreme fasting, this can have dangerous consequences.Related StoriesIt is okay for women with lupus to get pregnant with proper care, says new studyRaw meat can act as reservoir for bacteria associated with hospital infectionsHome-based support network helps stroke patients adjust after hospital dischargeClearly, social media play a central role in the lives of many young people, and efforts by parents and teachers to ban or drastically cut down on their use are likely to be futile or even counter-productive, given their benefits in terms of allowing individuals who might otherwise be socially isolated to connect with each other. Instead, educating young people about the reality and potential hazards of social media may help to address some of these negative effects. Studies have shown that educating young women about the techniques used to manipulate images of “size-zero” models in mainstream media advertisements decreases the negative effects of these on their body image. Similarly, educating young people about the artificial and manipulated nature of social media, and the pitfalls of unquestioningly comparing themselves to others in their social networks, could help to protect young people from their potentially negative effects.Psychologists also know that eating disorders are often fundamentally about control. Young people who have experienced abuse, bullying, trauma or social isolation, or who simply feel powerless to live up to the standards set by others, may feel that the only thing they can take control over is their body. Developing a culture in which we encourage and support young people to accept rather than judge themselves and each other, instead of pressurizing them to constantly strive for perfection, will help them to become more balanced and healthy individuals, and address this rising tide of eating disorders.”
Source:https://www.mcmaster.ca/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jan 18 2019It just got harder to avoid exercise. A few minutes of stair climbing, at short intervals throughout the day, can improve cardiovascular health, according to new research from kinesiologists at McMaster University and UBC Okanagan.The findings, published in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, suggest that virtually anyone can improve their fitness, anywhere, any time.”The findings make it even easier for people to incorporate ‘exercise snacks’ into their day,” says Martin Gibala, a professor of kinesiology at McMaster and senior author on the study.”Those who work in office towers or live in apartment buildings can vigorously climb a few flights of stairs in the morning, at lunch, and in the evening and know they are getting an effective workout.”Related StoriesOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairDiet and physical exercise do not reduce risk of gestational diabetesPrevious studies had shown that brief bouts of vigorous exercise, or sprint interval training (SIT), are effective when performed as a single session, with a few minutes of recovery between the intense bursts, requiring a total time commitment of 10 minutes or so.For this study, researchers set out to determine if SIT exercise snacks, or vigorous bouts of stairclimbing performed as single sprints spread throughout the day would be sufficient enough to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an important healthy marker that is linked to longevity and cardiovascular disease risk.One group of sedentary young adults vigorously climbed a three-flight stairwell, three times per day, separated by one to four hours of recovery. They repeated the protocol three times each week over the course of six weeks. The researchers compared the change in their fitness to a control group which did not exercise.”We know that sprint interval training works, but we were a bit surprised to see that the stair snacking approach was also effective,” says Jonathan Little, assistant professor at UBC’s Okanagan campus and study co-author. “Vigorously climbing a few flights of stairs on your coffee or bathroom break during the day seems to be enough to boost fitness in people who are otherwise sedentary.”In addition to being more fit, the stair climbers were also stronger compared to their sedentary counterparts at the end of the study, and generated more power during a maximal cycling test.In future, researchers hope to investigate different exercise snacking protocols with varying recovery times, and the effect on other health-related indicators such as blood pressure and glycemic control.
Source:http://www.musc.edu/ Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 15 2019The “Stroke Belt” refers to the swath of states in the Southeast where rates of stroke death are high, and according to the Department of Health and Environmental Control, South Carolina comes in at number six for the nation’s highest rates of stroke death.A stroke occurs when blood flow to a particular area of the brain is cut off, which could be due to a clot, a blood vessel leak or the bursting of a brain aneurysm. Without enough oxygen, the cells in that part of the brain begin to die and can leave behind motor and cognitive deficits.But while a stroke can be caused by vessel blockages or bleeding into the brain, the most common form is ischemic, meaning it is caused by a clot rather than a bleed, and is responsible for 87% of all strokes, according to the National Stroke Association.Timely removal of the blockage is vital when treating a stroke, and while the acceptable time to treatment has slowly lengthened with more effective thrombectomy techniques, physicians and surgeons must still act within 24 hours of the onset of stroke. Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) report in a recent paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology that the current standard of care for stroke should also factor in procedure time when considering surgical intervention.”People will try once to remove the clot,” said Ali Alawieh, M.D, Ph.D., neurosurgery researcher at MUSC who worked on the study under the direction of MUSC’s Division of Neuroendovascular Surgery Director Alejandro Spiotta, M.D. “They’ll then try two, three and even four times or more hoping for a successful attempt. The idea of the paper is to quantify that, to look for a limit where you start doing more harm than good.”By studying the number of attempts and the amount of time spent performing procedures, this team of researchers concluded that the likelihood of completing an endovascular thrombectomy without significantly increasing the risk for the patient decreases dramatically after the first 30-60 minutes, depending on the technique used.Endovascular thrombectomies are performed using either stent retrievers or aspiration thrombectomy (ADAPT). By comparing both techniques, Alawieh and Spiotta found that the most important detail to consider was the time spent manipulating the vessel. Conducting the procedure with an SR means it takes the surgeon longer to get to the vessel than with ADAPT, but the factor that influences patient outcomes is the amount of time needed once the surgical team reaches the clot. Using SRs, the golden time for the procedure is at the hour mark, and using ADAPT, it is a half-hour.Related StoriesResearchers report how a popular antidepressant drug could rewire the brainSugary drinks linked to cancer finds studyNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancer”We had noticed this trend at MUSC, but we wanted to know if it extended nationally,” said Alawieh. “As it turns out, it does. After that 30- to 60-minute mark, depending on the procedure, surgeons should pause and reassess if the procedure is worth continuing.”Prior studies have shown that extending the duration of mechanical thrombectomies past 60 minutes, and more recently past 35 minutes, decreases the chance a patient will show few-to-no neurological disabilities after 90 days and increases the chance of a postprocedural hemorrhage. This study supports those findings at a multicenter national level and shows complication rates increase by the minute and were not dependent on the treatment center.Because they are in the Stroke Belt, physicians at MUSC perform some of the largest numbers of endovascular thrombectomies in the country, totaling over 200 procedures a year. Endovascular thrombectomy remains an important area of study with guidelines changing every year, and surgical teams at MUSC have already begun contributing to and incorporating the new guidelines into their surgeries.If a procedure is taking longer than the intended 30 to 60 minutes and a surgeon decides not to continue with the endovascular thrombectomy, the patient will be treated using medical intervention. While rates of positive outcomes are highest with successful surgical intervention, patients may still recover some of the deficits with medical management.This work involved a collaboration between MUSC and other centers across the country who are part of the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR), a collaborative effort coordinated and initiated by MUSC to monitor outcomes in stroke patients nationally. To date, there are more than 12 centers across the U.S.”Stroke intervention procedures have improved dramatically in recent years, and they are so effective in helping patients, that it’s difficult for the physician to give up on a procedure when it’s not successful,” said Spiotta. “The major impact of this work is that it provides a potential stopping point for surgeons where the procedure can cause more harm than good.”
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 29 2019How sensory perception in the brain affects learning and memory processes is far from fully understood. Two neuroscientists of Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have discovered a new aspect of how the processing of odors impacts memory centers. They showed that the piriform cortex – a part of the olfactory brain – has a direct influence on information storage in our most important memory structure, the hippocampus. Dr. Christina Strauch and Professor Denise Manahan-Vaughan report about their findings in the online edition of the magazine Cerebral Cortex on 9 April 2019.Related StoriesNew therapy shows promise in preventing brain damage after traumatic brain injuryMercy Medical Center adds O-arm imaging system to improve spinal surgery resultsWearing a hearing aid may mitigate dementia riskElectric impulses simulate odorsTo find out how odors affect memory formation, the researchers triggered an artificial perception of an odor in the brains of rats. To do this, they stimulated the piriform cortex with electrical impulses. “We were very surprised to see that the hippocampus directly responds to stimulation of the piriform cortex,” remarked Christina Strauch.The hippocampus uses sensory information to create complex memories. The basis of this processes is its ability to increase the efficacy of information transmission across synapses and thereby store memory contents. This process is called synaptic plasticity. Manahan-Vaughan and Strauch were the first to show that stimulation of the anterior piriform cortex triggers synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.Special role for olfactionIn a second step, the researchers examined to what extent the piriform cortex competes with the entorhinal cortex in driving hippocampal synaptic plasticity. This structure sends information about activity in all sensory modalities to the hippocampus. Activating the afferent pathway of this structure, called the perforant path, triggered completely different reaction patterns in the hippocampus, to those generated by the piriform cortex. “The study gives us a theoretical basis for understanding how olfaction plays such a special role in memory formation and retrieval,” commented Denise Manahan-Vaughan.The two scientists have been working together since 2010 to investigate how odors cause memory formation. Source:https://news.rub.de/english/press-releases/2019-04-29-sensory-perception-how-olfactory-brain-affects-memory
Related StoriesNew methods to recognize antimicrobial resistant bacteria and how they workNon-pathogenic bacteria engineered as Trojan Horse to treat tumors from withinRaw meat can act as reservoir for bacteria associated with hospital infectionsThe researchers conclude that there is an epidemic spread of multiresistant intestinal bacteria in Vietnamese hospitals with rapid transmission to hospitalized patients.”The extensive spread of carbapenem-resistant intestinal bacteria means that forceful measures must be taken to reduce the transmission of infection in hospitals, by improvements to hand hygiene, the use of sterile working methods during surgery and when handling venous catheters, and by isolating patients who have been affected by multiresistant intestinal bacteria. It is also important to have effective follow up when patients are discharged from hospital, in order to reduce the spread of these bacteria in the population. But even if we do everything right, it will take a long time to get infections down to an acceptably low level”, says Håkan Hanberger.In the case of Sweden, the presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria so far is extremely low.”Sweden is one of the countries in the world where the situation with respect to carbapenem-resistant intestinal bacteria is most favorable. It is one of the countries that can probably delay the spread the longest, but we must improve hygiene in the healthcare services also in Sweden”, says Håkan Hanberger.The study has received support from, among other bodies, Karolinska Institutet, Linköping University, Region östergötland, the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), ReAct – Action on Antibiotic Resistance, and the participating hospitals. Source:Linköping UniversityJournal reference:Tran, D M. et al. (2019) High prevalence of colonisation with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients admitted to Vietnamese hospitals: Risk factors and burden of disease. Journal of Infection. doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.05.013 The sub-study looked at the most vulnerable patients, new-born children who needed intensive care, and showed that mortality was five times higher in those who had a hospital-acquired infection and were carriers of the multiresistant CRE bacteria.”Håkan Hanberger, Professor, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 26 2019Around half of patients admitted to hospital in Vietnam are carriers of multiresistant intestinal bacteria, which are resistant to carbapenems, a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. This is the conclusion of a study by Swedish and Vietnamese scientists led by Linköping University, published in the Journal of Infection.”In our study, we see a high prevalence of multiresistant intestinal bacteria in Vietnamese hospitals. The longer the patients are in hospital, the greater is the risk that they have been infected by intestinal bacteria resistant to carbapenems”, says Håkan Hanberger, professor in the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine at Linköping University and consultant in the Infection Clinic at Linköping University Hospital.There are several reasons why carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a serious problem. They are resistant to nearly all broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means that infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat. In addition, CRE can pass antibiotic-resistance genes to other bacteria, causing these to become resistant to the carbapenem group of antibiotics. Intestinal bacteria spread easily, such as on hands and furniture used in the care of infants. They cause various types of infection, primarily urinary tract infections, sepsis and pneumonia. These multiresistant intestinal bacteria are spreading rapidly around the world, and WHO has given the highest priority to measures to control the spread of CRE and to develop new antibiotics against these bacteria.The study reported in the Journal of Infection included more than 2,200 patients admitted to 63 different wards at 12 hospitals in various parts of Vietnam. Rectal swabs were taken from the patients and investigated for the presence of CRE. Being a carrier is a risk factor for contracting a clinical infection with the bacteria, but not all carriers become sick.Risk factors for becoming a carrier of multiresistant intestinal bacteria were a longer stay in the hospital and contracting an infection during the stay, known as a “hospital-acquired infection”. One of eight patients (13%) were carriers at admission, which had increased to seven of eight patients (87%) after two weeks in hospital. Another risk factor for patients in the study was being treated with carbapenem, which contributes to the carbapenem-resistant bacteria being selected.In a sub-study of 328 new-born children in a neonatal intensive care unit, the scientists showed that mortality is linked to being a carrier for CRE and to having a hospital-acquired infection when admitted to the unit (odds ratio 5.5, p<0.01).
Karnataka Congress MLA Ramalinga Reddy says he will withdraw resignation, vote in favour of govtCongress MLA Ramalinga Reddy on Wednesday said he has decided to withdraw his resignation from the assembly. This comes a day before the floor test in Karnataka assembly.advertisement Press Trust of India BengaluruJuly 17, 2019UPDATED: July 17, 2019 23:50 IST Karnataka Congress MLA Ramalinga Reddy.In some relief to the embattled coalition government in Karnataka, Congress MLA Ramalinga Reddy on Wednesday said he has decided to withdraw his resignation from the assembly and will vote in favour of the trust vote to be sought by Chief Minister H D Kumaraswamy.”I will take part in the assembly session tomorrow and vote in favour of the party. I will continue to remain in the party and serve as MLA,” he told PTI here.Reddy, a former minister, is among the 13 Congress and three JDS MLAs who have tendered their resignations while two independent legislators have withdrawn their support to the 14-month old Kumaraswamy government, leaving it tottering on the brink of collapse.The survival of the Congress-JD(S) government hangs precariously on the eve of the trust vote with the Supreme Court Wednesday holding that the 15 rebel Congress-JD(S) MLAs, who had moved it, cannot be compelled to participate in the proceedings of the ongoing assembly session.While most of the rebel MLAs have been staying in Mumbai, Reddy chose to be in the city amid reports that Congress was trying to pacify him.The party had also left him out while moving the Assembly Speaker for disqualification of the rebel MLAs, saying he was an “exception.”Reddy too had maintained he would remain in Congress and he has resigned only from the assembly.Hours ahead of the floor test on Thursday, Reddy said he would withdraw his resignation letter submitted to the Speaker on July 6.The other rebel MLAs camping in Mumbai said there was no question of stepping back on their resignations or attending the session.If the resignations of the 15 MLAs are accepted or if they stay away from the assembly, the ruling coalitions tally will plummet to 102, reducing the government to a minority.Also Read | President Ram Nath Kovind hails SC’s effort to provide judgments in 9 vernacular languagesAlso Watch | Karnataka crisis: Can Kumaraswamy govt survive?For the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted bySanchari Chatterjee Next